Google penguin is an algorithm launched on – April 24,2012
Initially it was launched as a separate filter and went through 10 document updates over the time.
But in september 2016, Google announced that penguin is now part of its core algorithm.
Google Penguin Targets
The issue was that poor quality websites and content would rank more highly in organic search results than they deserved.
The thing is that the more backlink a page has the more likely it is to rank higher in the search engine page result.
LINK SCHEMES : The development, acquisition or purchase of backlinks from low-quality or unrelated websites & also spam links.
KEYWORD STUFFING : Populating a webpage with large numbers of keywords or repetition of keywords in an attempt to manipulate rank.
In other words it looks at which sites are linking to you ,not which sites you are linking out to.
It targets backlinks like :
Backlinks from low-quality websites.
Paid or incentivised backlinks
Link built using a tool
Backlinks from countries that are known for black hat tactics
If someone have built large number of backlinks in short duration.
The common denominator with all of the above is that penguin is looking to prevent websites with unnatural link profiles from ranking high.
Why was Google Penguin needed?
Google’s war on low- quality started with the panda algorithm,and penguin was an extension and upgrade to fight this war.
Penguin was google’s response to the increasing practice of manipulating search results through black hat link building techniques.
The algorithm objective was to gain greater control overand reduce the effectiveness of a no. of black hat spamming techniques.
With the better understanding and process the type of links websites and webmasters were earning, penguin worked toward ensuring that natural , authoritative and relevant links rewarded the websites they pointed to while manipulative and spam my links were downgraded.
Penguin only deal with a sites incoming links. Google only looks at the links pointing to the site in question and does not look at the outgoing links at all from that site.